What animals are singing? | Live Science


Two creatures Sing softly to each other, Trade a series of trills, low prizes, and tweets. If you close your eyes and listen, you may think you can hear two birds. But you will be wrong. In fact, it is a pair of vocal repertoire Alston’s Singing Mouse (((Scotinomys teguina), A small rodent found in the cloud forests of Central America that communicates by singing passionately with its peers.

As their sounds are almost beyond our audible range, the researchers revealed their sweet symphonies by recording their vocalizations at frequencies we can hear. But their elusive appeal also reverses the commonly held assumption that songbirds are the only non-human song animals. In fact, more animals are singing to each other than expected. So what species does it do? And do they sing just to find their companions and mark their territory?

First of all, you need to understand the difference between a song and other sounds. Few researchers claim that there is a definitive answer. But at the simplest level, they define a song as a series of sounds, which can be repeated over a period of time to something similar to what we call a melody, according to a professor of biology at Harvard University. A Brian Farrell explained. Part of his work on the sounds of animals in nature. Put simply, “every song is a sound, but not all sounds are songs,” Farrell told Live Science. By this definition dogTo bark, FrogBark or cicadaThe treble is not necessarily the sound that appears to be a song.

Related: What is a talkative animal?

To go further, we can say that the song contains a certain composition. This is aided by the ability to improvise, Farrell said. Interestingly, song animals are often not born with abilities, but are also animals that learn to talk from their parents. He said this flexible learning is supposed to support improvisation skills.

This definition is a very subjective human definition. But singing is “an easy way for us to talk about a particular subset of animal signals that sound very musical,” explains the relationship between animal communication and animal music. Applying this definition begins to reveal nature’s hidden diva.

Take the free-tailed Mexican bat bat (((Tadarida Brasiliensis), This tries to get the attention of females with highs during mating (in fact, it’s so high-pitched that humans need to use special audio equipment to hear it). Things get interesting when male bats are successful in attracting the interest of their potential peers. According to a 2013 study from the journal Animal Behavior, it seems to intrigue women long enough to upgrade simple songs to incorporate different sequences and start to mate. Bats can quickly rearrange these sequences to reflect what women like. It’s a real case of improvisation under pressure.

Gibbon, on the other hand, challenges humans to be part of most people. Noble singer From the world of primates. Not all gibbon species sing, but those that produce complex arias are typically long, scattered, and cry with short bursts of sound – using a vocal mechanism discovered by researchers. Often seen by opera singers, this too. Their composition also depends on the situation: researchers have found that some gibbon predators have warnings. Arrangement of unique sounds For example, you cannot hear it on a regular call. In addition, gibbons are Sing in duet, experts think it helps Strengthen social ties Distinguish the territory from other mating pairs.

Related: Why do birds sing the same song over and over again?

But these primates aren’t the only animals who like to sing together. Alston’s Singing Mouse also sings a duet and sings very politely. Animals generally have a rapid chirping stream (their songs can contain most). 100 Notes However, research shows that one animal’s song never interferes with another animal’s song. In fact, each mouse stops an instant after the companion ends and before it begins its own song. socket.

Whales can create long configurations unique to each group. (Image credit: Paul Suders via Getty Images)

Meanwhile, the conversation over the song wouldn’t be complete without the unforgettable melody of. Humpback whale (((Megaptera nova eangliae). In 1970, the American biologist Roger Payne First recording of a whale song I put it on vinyl and distributed it widely. The soul song, in fact, had such an influence that it would have helped to stimulate the momentum against whaling throughout the 1970s, and eventually Almost global moratoriumSaid Farrell.

Pain’s recording also showed for the first time that the bark of the whale consisted of a single, repeating pattern. “We were the first to find out that these 20-minute utterances by the whales were in fact a composition,” said Farrell. Since then, researchers have discovered that whale pods have unique songs that can be used to identify them, and that they contain other whale species. Killer whale (((Orcinus orca) When Bergus (((Delphinapterus leucas), I also sing a song.

What are you singing ?

These are just a handful of planetary song species, and there can be many more, depending on how you define the wild animal melodies. but why NOT. Do song animals sing, bark, whiten, or buzz? According to Farrell, animals living in the same acoustic space must not only compete for territory, companionship and food, but also effectively “compete for bandwidth”. Singing has the advantage of being able to send long distances and carry a lot of information in long sequences. This is useful for demarcating territories, warning others of predators, and persuading peers with impressive vocal prowess like the Free-tailed Bat.

But beyond these functional roles, do animals sing only for pure pleasure? There is no hard answer here. But we know animals play and have “emotional lives,” Farrell said. “These two things have been established and there is a huge amount of literature on them,” he said. There is also growing evidence that animals have an emotional response to music.

For example, researchers studied the effects of Mozart’s composition on mice able to hear the highest musical frequencies and found that music lowered the sound of the mouse. arterial pressureThis usually corresponds to a feeling of calm. Based on such findings, Snowdon decided to take it one step further. Thirteen years ago, he worked with a cellist named David Teie to determine if this relationship would be maintained, especially when composing music for animals. They say music has frequencies in their voice and audibility, and their Heartbeat Or vocalization model.

Related: What kind of music do animals like?

The free-tailed bat shows an impressive vocal feat. (Image credit: Auscape / Universal Images Group via Getty Images)

In two separate studies, Snowdon and Teie decided to study species of cats and monkeys called cotton-headed tamarins (“Saguinus oedipus), Measure the creatures’ response to a series of experimental animal ballads created by Snowdon and Teie. First of all, for tamarind, I composed two very distinct songs. One consists of high-pitched jerky beats that evoke the excitement of chattering monkeys. And another Earrings and whistling songs. For cats, it’s a series High slippery note Set for a background rhythm that matches the tempo of the rumble. In both cases, specially composed music elicited a reaction.

2009 tamarind study published in the journal Biology letterHas shown that monkeys can be calmed down or aroused, depending on the song they play. On the other hand, in the 2015 study Applied Sciences of Animal BehaviorTheir cat song responded to the interest of the felines. Felines might approach and rub against speakers playing their anomalous details rather than speakers playing normal songs.

“It shows that music has emotional elements, and by manipulating those emotional elements we can change the behavior of animals,” says Snowdon. In fact, another researcher tested the makeup of Snowdon’s and Teyer’s cats in a real-life environment at a veterinary clinic and found that “playing cat music calms the animal during a vet exam rather than playing cat music. human music or silence. I understand. Snowdon said.

The fact that songs composed can have this effect on animals prompts those who believe that the emotional effects of music may have deeper evolutionary roots than we realize. I guided you. It is an ongoing area of ​​research. On the other hand, can we conclude that animals sing only for pleasure? Farrell tends to think of animal songs as having an emotional component, which he says can be confirmed beyond current research capabilities, adding that “the more interesting questions are the hardest to test.” I did.

Considering the playful hoops of the gibbons, the sympathetic chatter of the singing mice, and the moving melody of the whales, it’s hard to believe that animal songs are not woven with emotion and joy. But that’s the mystery of another day.

Originally published in Live Science.

What animals are singing? | Live Science Source Link What Animals Sing? | Live Science


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